Regional jet designed and built by Antonov
The Antonov An-148 (Ukrainian: Антонов Ан-148) is a regional jet designed and built by Antonov of Ukraine. Until 2017, it was also built by Russia's Voronezh Aircraft Production Association. Development of the aircraft was started in the 1990s, and its maiden flight took place on 17 December 2004. The aircraft completed its certification programme on 26 February 2007. The An-148 has a maximum range of 2,100–4,400 km (1,100–2,400 nmi; 1,300–2,700 mi) and is able to carry 68–85 passengers, depending on the configuration.
The Antonov An-158 is a stretched fuselage version of the aircraft, accommodating up to 100 passengers.
Following a crash in February 2018, which is still under investigation, all An-148 and An-158 in Russia were grounded by the Russian Ministry of Transport. In addition, Cubana grounded its An-158 fleet as of May 2018 due to several technical issues with the aircraft.
The An-148 aircraft is a high-wing monoplane with two turbofan jet engines mounted in pods under the wing. This arrangement protects the engines and wing structure against foreign object damage. A built-in autodiagnosis system, auxiliary power unit, and the wing configuration allow the An-148 to be used at poorly equipped airfields. Flight and navigation equipment features five 15 by 20 cm (5.9 by 7.9 in) liquid crystal display panels built by Russia’s Aviapribor and a fly-by-wire system, which enables the An-148 aircraft to operate day and night, under instrument flight rules and visual flight rules weather conditions on high-density air routes. Similar to the Boeing 737, the main landing gear rotates into the belly of the aircraft when in flight, with partial doors covering the legs, and the sides of the tires remaining exposed. Built-in entrance stairs enable boarding and disembarking the aircraft without extra ground equipment. The manufacturer claims high fuel efficiency of the Motor Sich D-436-148 engines.
Design, development, and production
The beginning of the An-148 project dates to the early 1990s, when work on the Antonov An-74 passenger modification started, headed by Petro Balabuev. The redesigned An-74 was inspired by the British Aerospace 146 with the aircraft's type number being a nod to the smaller BAe version. In 2001, the project was renamed An-148. The An-74 fuselage was extended and the new aircraft's wing design was created from scratch. The developers initially used Motor Sich D-436-148 engines. Other variants with Western-made engines with thrust of 58.86–78.48 kN (6,002–8,003 kgf; 13,230–17,640 lbf) (such as the General Electric CF34 or Rolls-Royce BR700) are being considered.
In 2002, production of the first three prototypes was begun at AVIANT. On 17 December 2004, the first prototype completed its maiden flight. The second prototype joined the testing programme in April 2005. During the certification programme, the two prototypes performed about 600 flights in total. On 26 February 2007, the aircraft, its D-436-148 engine and the AI-450-МS auxiliary power unit were certified by the Interstate Aviation Committee of Russia and the State Aviation Administration of Ukraine.
The An-148 is manufactured by the Ukrainian Kiev AVIANT plant (now Antonov Serial Production Plant) and Russia's Voronezh Aircraft Production Association (VASO). On 28 June 2009, the first serially produced An-148, manufactured at VASO in Voronezh, took to the skies. Although numerous companies are involved in the project, at least 70% of the aircraft's hardware is made by Russian manufacturers. The An-148's list price is about $24–30 million. The main problem with the project has been increasing the aircraft's sluggish production rate. The then-independent AVIANT plant initially failed to satisfy to growing orders, leading to VASO's growing involvement in the aircraft's assembly. However, due to the suspension of diplomatic relations, as a result of the Russian military intervention in support of separatist movements in eastern Ukraine and the takeover of Crimea, cooperation in several fields; amongst them aviation, has been halted. As a result, VASO announced in June 2017 that the two final Russian-assembled An-148s would be delivered, and the project would not see further development.
The An-148-100 regional aircraft is the main model of the An-148. It seats 70 passengers at 864 mm (34.0 in) or up to 80 passengers at 762 mm (30.0 in) pitch in a one-class 2+3 seating layout. The aircraft is also configurable in a multiple-class layout which can carry fewer passengers, typically with four abreast business class.
For Siberian operators, Antonov plans a model with a higher gross weight and additional fuel capacity in the center tank, extending the range with 75 passengers from 2,198 km (1,187 nmi; 1,366 mi) to 3,598 km (1,943 nmi; 2,236 mi). An “E” variant is also planned to offer a special 5,100 km (2,800 nmi; 3,200 mi) range, which would serve as a platform for the "E1", capable of non-stop Moscow-Vladivostok 6,995 km (3,777 nmi; 4,346 mi) services carrying 44 passengers.
- main version of the An-148. It has a passenger capacity of 75 in a one-class standard configuration (85 dense) or 68 in a two-class configuration and a range of 2,100 km (1,100 nmi; 1,300 mi)
- extended range version up to 3,500 km (1,900 nmi; 2,200 mi)
- extended range version up to 4,400 km (2,400 nmi; 2,700 mi) and a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 43.7 t (43,700 kg; 96,000 lb)
- unified with An-158 by the rear part of the fuselage. Hence maximum seating capacity is increased to 89 passengers in dense configuration, comparing to 85 for An-148-100. Planned for production in Kiev with An-158.
- previously called An-168, business variant, seating 8-40 passengers, with a range up to 7,000 km (3,800 nmi; 4,300 mi)
- proposed airborne early warning and control variant.
- stretched fuselage version for 99 passengers in a one-class standard configuration. Other changes include the installation of wingtip fences. The airplane successfully completed its first flight on 28 April 2010, with flight certification tests planned to be completed before the end of 2010; on 3 March 2011, it was given Russian certification. Nowadays, after flight and land test in night lands airports of Ecuador (Latacunga / Cotopaxi International Airport, 2806 m AMSL) and Bolivia (La Paz / El Alto International Airport, 4061 m AMSL) in November 2013 prepare documentation for obtaining correspondent supplements to the type certificate of this airplane.
- cargo variant, with a payload capacity of 15 t (15,000 kg; 33,000 lb). The wing outer panels (including winglets), front fuselage with cockpit and nosewheel leg come from the An-158. The cargo hold is slightly enlarged, and there is an extra pair of main-wheels on each side.
- HESA IrAn-148
- Designation of An-148 aircraft proposed for licence production from knocked down kits in Iran.
Orders and operational history
In April 2005, the Ilyushin Finance Leasing Company ordered the first series of An-148 for the Krasair airline. Lease agreement calls for ten aircraft with an option for five units valued at $270 million.
On 2 June 2009, the first An-148 entered commercial service with the Ukrainian carrier Aerosvit. The first passenger flight was from Kharkiv to Kiev; the aircraft had the civilian registration UR-NTA. By November 2009, Aerosvit was operating the An-148 on the Kiev–Odessa and Simferopol–Lviv routes, performing two flights a day with the average flight time of 4–5 hours.
On 21 December 2009, the An-148 was put into service in Russia with Rossiya airline. The first passenger flight was FV135 from Pulkovo Airport in Sankt Petersburg to Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow. By 20 May 2010, Rossiya's An-148 fleet had accumulated a total of 915 flight hours and performed 710 landings. Rossiya complained that the aircraft experienced some reliability problems. There were some technical problems with the aircraft, and pilot training could not be ramped up fast enough, leading to pilot shortages. However, by 2011 the situation had clearly improved.
On 15 February 2010, the An-148 started international flights to the European Union (Poland) with the Aerosvit airline.
On 18 April 2013, the first serial An-158 version was delivered to the Cuban flagship airline Cubana de Aviación. According to Antonov, Cubana additionally ordered two more aircraft, while other sources report this order to be for ten aircraft.
On 28 April 2013, Ukraine’s Antonov aircraft maker handed over a third An-158 passenger airliner to Cuba and signed a contract for the delivery of three more.
The Russian ambassador in Bolivia and the government of Evo Morales are negotiating the acquisition of one aircraft of this type for use as the presidential carrier and another eight for the state-owned airlines: Boliviana de Aviación (BoA) and Transporte Aéreo Militar (TAM).
In April 2016, Indian company Reliance defense limited and Antonov entered into an agreement to construct an aircraft based on An 148/ An 158 for defense and commercial purposes.
In April 2017, Cubana de Aviación suspended its flights between Havana and Guantánamo due to "technical problems" with its An-158 fleet. The route from Havana to Holguín also had problems: of 116 planned flights in the first months of 2017, 38 were cancelled and 36 suffered significant delays. Yoanka Acosta, head of Cubana's commercial division, explained that the planes were leased from Ukraine but spare parts were sourced from Russia, so the state of conflict between the two countries had affected the supply of parts, making maintenance difficult. In late April, however, representatives from Antonov and Cubana met and signed a service agreement that extended the aircraft's navigation directives to 3,600 flights and guaranteed the supply of spare parts, although it did not specify a date for normalization.
In May 2018, Cubana de Aviación grounded its An-158 fleet after it received an order from the Cuban National Aviation Authority. The official reason given by the Cuban National Aviation Authority was “multiple and repeating failures have been found in complex systems, built by mechanical, hydraulic and electrical components, as well as computer performance algorithms,” in addition to “evidence of design and manufacturing flaws, serious issues in flight control system, cracks in the structure and engine temperature increase above normal parameters.”
|Seating capacity||85 (1-class, dense)|
75 (1-class, typical)
68 (2-class, typical)
|99 (1-class, dense)|
90 (1-class, typical)
86 (2-class, typical)
|Seat pitch||30 in (1-class, dense)|
32 in (1-class, typical)
35 & 32 in (2-class, typical)
|30 in (1-class, dense)|
32 in (1-class, typical)
34 & 31 in (2-class, typical)
|Length||29.13 metres (95 ft 7 in)||30.83 metres (101 ft 2 in)|
|Wingspan||28.91 metres (94 ft 10 in)||28.56 metres (93 ft 8 in)|
|Wing area||87.32 square metres (939.9 sq ft)||–|
|Height||8.19 metres (26 ft 10 in)||8.20 metres (26 ft 11 in)|
|Cabin Width||3.15 metres (10 ft 4 in)|
|Cabin Height||2.00 metres (6 ft 7 in)|
|Maximum take-off weight||38,550 kilograms (84,990 lb)||41,950 kilograms (92,480 lb)||43,700 kilograms (96,300 lb)|
|Maximum payload||9,000 kilograms (20,000 lb)||5,000 kilograms (11,000 lb)|
|Cargo capacity||14.60 m3 (516 cu ft)||–|
|Takeoff run at MTOW||1,560 metres (5,120 ft)||1,800 metres (5,900 ft)||1,885 metres (6,184 ft)||1,900 metres (6,200 ft)|
|Dry Operating Weight(DOW)||16,800 kilograms (37,000 lb)||19,800 kilograms (43,700 lb)||22,000 kilograms (49,000 lb)||22,000 kilograms (49,000 lb)|
|Max Zero Fuel Weight||28,850 kilograms (63,600 lb)||31,850 kilograms (70,220 lb)||34,050 kilograms (75,070 lb)||34,050 kilograms (75,070 lb)|
|Max Landing Weight||30,000 kilograms (66,000 lb)||33,000 kilograms (73,000 lb)||36,050 kilograms (79,480 lb)||36,050 kilograms (79,480 lb)|
|Max Fuel Weight||12,050 kilograms (26,570 lb)|
|Normal/Econ Cruise Altitude||11,000 metres (36,000 ft)|
|Service ceiling||12,200 metres (40,000 ft)|
|Cruising speed||800 km/h to 870 km/h (497 mph to 541 mph)|
|Range fully loaded|
(with 75 pax for 148 variant)
|2,100 kilometres (1,300 mi)||3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi)||4,400 kilometres (2,700 mi)||2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi)|
|Fuel consumption||1,550 kg/h (3,417 lb/h)||1,600 kg/h (3,527 lb/h)||1,650 kg/h (3,638 lb/h)||1,800 kg/h (3,968 lb/h)|
|Engine (x 2)||Progress D-436-148||D-436|
|Max. thrust (x 2)||6,400 Kgf|
14,080 lbf (63.0 kN)
15,026 lbf (67.0 kN)
Sources: Antonov Design Bureau, United Aircraft Corporation, flightglobal.com, Aviant.
Current orders and deliveries
Incidents and accidents
- On 5 March 2011, an Antonov An-148 (assembled by VASO) carrying test registration 61708 crashed during a test flight in Russia’s Belgorod Oblast after an inflight breakup, killing all six crew members on board. An investigation commission found that the crew permitted the aircraft to accelerate more than 60 knots above its "Never Exceed" speed in an emergency descent, which led to the inflight breakup. Witnesses on the ground reported a wing had separated from the aircraft in flight. The aircraft was due to be delivered to Myanmar, where two of the dead were from.
- On 11 February 2018, an Antonov An-148 operating as Saratov Airlines Flight 703, crashed near Ramenskoye, just outside of Moscow, shortly after take off. The aircraft was carrying 65 passengers and 6 crew members. There were no survivors. This is the first fatal commercial accident for this aircraft type.
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
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